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Camcorder - Wikipedia. Professional camcorder HDV. Full HD camcorder by Canon based on flash memory/SD card. A camcorder is an electronic device combining a video camera and a video recorder. Although marketing materials may use the colloquial term . Most devices capable of recording video are camera phones and digital cameras primarily intended for still pictures; the term . In 2. 00. 6, digital recording became the norm, with tape replaced by storage media such as internal flash memory and SD cards.
But almost all of the electronic cameras built in 2. The term camcorder is now exclusively used for a particular camera range which provides advanced functions over more common cameras. History. This is a Sony SL- F1 Betamax recorder and video camera. As technology improved, out- of- studio video recording was possible with compact video cameras and portable video recorders; a detachable recording unit could be carried to a shooting location. Although the camera itself was compact, the need for a separate recorder made on- location shooting a two- person job. Portable recorders meant that recorded video footage could be aired on the early- evening news, since it was no longer necessary to develop film. In 1. 98. 2, Sony released the Betacam system.
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A key component was a single camera- recorder unit, eliminating a cable between the camera and recorder and increasing the camera operator's freedom. The Betacam used the same cassette format (0.
Betamax (but with a different, incompatible recording format), and became standard equipment for broadcast news and in- studio video editing. Sony released the first consumer camcorder in 1.
The Betamovie BMC- 1. P used a Betamax cassette and rested on the operator's shoulder, due to a design not permitting a single- handed grip. That year, JVC released the first VHS- C camcorder. That year, Panasonic, RCA and Hitachi began producing camcorders using a full- size VHS cassette with a three- hour capacity. These shoulder- mount camcorders were used by videophiles, industrial videographers and college TV studios.
Full- size Super- VHS (S- VHS) camcorders were released in 1. Sony upgraded Video. Hi. 8 in competition with S- VHS. Digital. In 1. 99. Ampex introduced DCT, the first digital video format with data compression using the discrete cosine transform algorithm present in most commercial digital video formats. In 1. 99. 5 Sony, JVC, Panasonic and other video- camera manufacturers launched DV, which became a de facto standard for home video production, independent filmmaking and citizen journalism. That year, Ikegami introduced Editcam (the first tapeless video recording system).
High definition (HD). The format was intended for professional camcorders, and used full- size DVCPRO cassettes. In 2. 00. 3 Sony, JVC, Canon and Sharp introduced HDV as the first affordable HD video format, due to its use of inexpensive Mini. DV cassettes. Tapeless. Panasonic followed in 2.
P2solid statememory cards as a recording medium for DVCPRO- HD video. In 2. 00. 6 Panasonic and Sony introduced AVCHD as an inexpensive, tapeless, high- definition video format. AVCHD camcorders are produced by Sony, Panasonic, Canon, JVC and Hitachi. In 2. 01. 0, after the success of James Cameron's 2. D film. Avatar, full 1. HD 3. D camcorders entered the market. With the proliferation of file- based digital formats, the relationship between recording media and recording format has declined; video can be recorded onto different media.
With tapeless formats, recording media are storage for digital files. It is a 2. D camcorder which can shoot in HD; 3. D is achieved by a detachable conversion lens. Sony released a 3. D camcorder, the HDR- TD1.
The Sony's 3. D lens is built in, but it can shoot 2. D video. Panasonic has also released 2. D camcorders with an optional 3. D conversion lens.
The HDC- SD9. 0, HDC- SD9. HDC- TM9. 00 and HDC- HS9. When using the traditional format AVCHD, the camcorder supports 5. XAVC- S format. The camera also has a 3- step ND filter switch for maintaining a shallow depth of field or a softer appearance to motion. For one hour video shooting in 4. K the camera needs about 3. GB to accommodate a data transfer rate of 5.
Mbit/s. The camera's MSRP is $2,0. It is capable of shooting in 4. K resolution. It currently has a hefty price tag of . Virtually all mainstream TVs are not 4. K ready either with the only 4. K TVs available being very expensive at . The only means of archiving 4.
K video is the 1. GB Blu- ray Disc XL but the discs are very expensive. Sony released the FDRAX3. Panasonic has released the HC- WX9.
K and the HC- VX8. In HD capture, the camcorder get benefit to reduce noises of small sensor by in- camera downscaling of the 4. K image to HD. The lens gathers light, focusing it on the imager.
The imager (usually a CCD or CMOS sensor; earlier models used vidicon tubes) converts incident light into an electrical signal. The recorder converts the electrical signal to video, encoding it in a storable form. The lens and imager comprise the . Camcorder optics generally have one or more of the following controls: In consumer units these adjustments are often automatically controlled by the camcorder, but can be adjusted manually if desired. Professional- grade units offer user control of all major optical functions.
The imager converts light into an electrical signal. The camera lens projects an image onto the imager surface, exposing the photosensitive array to light. This light exposure is converted into an electrical charge. At the end of the timed exposure, the imager converts the accumulated charge into a continuous analog voltage at the imager's output terminals.
After the conversion is complete, the photosites reset to start the exposure of the next video frame. Recorder. Since the record function involves many signal- processing steps, some distortion and noise historically appeared on the stored video; playback of the stored signal did not have the exact characteristics and detail as a live video feed. All camcorders have a recorder- controlling section, allowing the user to switch the recorder into playback mode for reviewing recorded footage, and an image- control section controlling exposure, focus and color balance.
The image recorded need not be limited to what appeared in the viewfinder. For documenting events (as in law enforcement), the field of view overlays the time and date of the recording along the top and bottom of the image. The police car or constable badge number to which the recorder was given, the car's speed at the time of recording, compass direction and geographical coordinates may also be seen. Analog and digital.
It can only record up to four hours of NTSC analog video. Camcorders are often classified by their storage device; VHS, VHS- C, Betamax, Video. Digital video camcorder formats include Digital.
Mini. DV, DVD, hard disk drive, direct to disk recording and solid- state, semiconductor flash memory. While all these formats record video in digital form, Digital.
Mini. DV, DVD and hard- disk drives. Newer analog, and digital camcorders use a solid- state charge- coupled imaging device (CCD) or a CMOS imager. Both are analog detectors, using photodiodes to pass a current proportional to the light striking them. The current is then digitised before being electronically scanned and fed to the imager's output.
The main difference between the two devices is how the scanning is done. In the CCD the diodes are sampled simultaneously, and the scan passes the digitised data from one register to the next. In CMOS devices, the diodes are sampled directly by the scanning logic. Digital video storage retains higher- quality video than analog storage, especially on the prosumer and strictly consumer levels. Mini. DV storage allows full- resolution video (7. PAL, 7. 20x. 48. 0 for NTSC), unlike analog consumer- video standards. Digital video does not experience colour bleeding, jitter, or fade.
Unlike analog formats, digital formats do not experience generation loss during dubbing; however, they are more prone to complete loss. Although digital information can theoretically be stored indefinitely without deterioration, some digital formats (like Mini. DV) place tracks only about 1. A digital recording is more vulnerable to wrinkles or stretches in the tape which could erase data, but tracking and error- correction code on the tape compensates for most defects. On analog media, similar damage registers as . DVDs may develop DVD rot, losing large chunks of data. An analog recording may be .
Newer machines since 2. MPEG- 1, MPEG- 2 or MPEG- 4 format. Codecs storing each frame individually, easing frame- specific scene editing, are common in professional use. Other digital consumer camcorders record in DV or HDV format on tape, transferring content over Fire. Wire or USB 2. 0 to a computer where large files (for DV, 1.
GB for 4 to 4. 6 minutes in PAL/NTSC resolutions) can be edited, converted and recorded back to tape. The transfer is done in real time, so the transfer of a 6.
GB of disk space for the raw footage (plus space for rendered files and other media). Consumer market. Most devices with camcorder capability are camera phones or compact digital cameras, in which video is a secondary capability. Some pocket cameras, mobile phones and camcorders are shock- , dust- and waterproof. Miniaturization reduces the imager's ability to gather light; designers have balanced improvements in sensor sensitivity with size reduction, shrinking the camera imager and optics while maintaining relatively noise- free video in daylight. Indoor or dim- light shooting is generally noisy, and in such conditions artificial lighting is recommended. Mechanical controls cannot shrink below a certain size, and manual camera operation has given way to camera- controlled automation for every shooting parameter (including focus, aperture, shutter speed and color balance). The few models with manual override are menu- driven.
Outputs include USB 2. Composite and S- Video and IEEE 1. Firewire (for Mini.
Photo Editing Programs (that aren't Photoshop): Digital Photography Review. Adobe Photoshop is one of those weird products that has an cultural significance far beyond its actual purpose. As we've said before, it has become a verb - we commonly speak about 'Photoshopping' images regardless of the software that we actually used to do it. In this article we'll be taking a quick look at ten other pieces of image manipulation software that you might not know about, but which are well worth exploring.
None of these applications is a true one- to- one 'replacement' for Photoshop CS6, particularly if you're a graphic designer or video professional. But for the rest of us - people that just want to retouch images, manipulate composition, adjust colors and saturation, apply canned filters and effects, and remove that kid who wandered into the foreground of an otherwise- perfect photo - they may prove to be very useful. Obviously, this isn't a comprehensive list. If you think we've missed anything, as always let us know in the comments! ACD Systems ACDSee Pro 6 and ACDSee Photo Editor If you. Mac users beware though - you'll have to make do with ACDSee Pro 3 for now.
Adobe Photoshop Lightroom 4$1. Creative Cloud subscription.
Operating requirements: 6. Macs running Mac OS X 1. Windows Vista or laterwww. Lightroom isn. Launched as a RAW workflow tool, Adobe has been steadily updating it through four iterations (a beta version of 5 is also available) and if you don. If you work mainly with RAW files and need a program to quickly process your images, adjust exposure, remove noise, and apply the same adjustments to a batch of images, Lightroom may be all you need - which was precisely why Adobe created it.
Lightroom 4 is available for $1. Creative Cloud subscription. Aperture blends advanced features such as RAW processing, manual retouching, custom- printing elements, and tagging/organization tools with novice- friendly options such as facial recognition, geotagging, and one- click filters. Unlike Lightroom, Aperture does not offer built- in lens- distortion correction out of the box, but there are several Aperture plugins available on Apple. At $8. 0 it's hard to find much to complain about. Corel Paint. Shop Pro X5$6. Basic edition; $7.
Ultimate edition. Operating requirements: Windows XP SP3 and laterwww. If you. The 'Ultimate' edition of Paint. Shop Pro X5 costs just $1. Nik Color Efx Pro 3.
Optics Pro 8 takes some getting used to, but it's an incredibly powerful tool and its lens corrections really do have to be seen to be believed. Be prepared to wait for new cameras and lens modules to be added, though Dx. O is getting better in this regard. GIMP 2. 8. Free. Compatible with: Windows XP and later; Mac OS X; Linux; Unix; BSDwww. GIMP is an open- source project that costs absolutely nothing.
It does an admirable job of replicating Photoshop. Although it shares a surprising amount of features with the much- higher- priced Photoshop, GIMP is nowhere near as much of a resource hog. The most common gripes with GIMP are that it isn.
For basic JPEG photo edits on a Windows machine, Paint. Anyway, it's free - why not? Phase One Capture One Pro 7$3.
Compatible with: Windows Vista (SP2) and later (6. Mac OS X 1. 0. 6. In our Raw Converter Showdown earlier this year, Phase One. Like Lightroom and Dx. O Optics Pro, it also offers an extensive selection of noise- reduction, lens- correction, color- correction, and custom- printing tools. If its relatively high cost gives you pause, you can always download a free trial version and see how you get on.
Pixelmator 2. 2 'Blueberry'Normally $3. May 2. 01. 3) on sale for $1. Compatible with: Mac OS X 1. Pixelmator is another full- featured editing tool, and it. Pixelmator only runs on Mac OS X, and while it isn.
For basic to semi- advanced image- editing needs (color correction, brushes, layers, masks, filters, text tools, and a content- aware healing tool), it has the bases covered. Like GIMP, it also supports editing PSD files, so you can work with any projects you. Along with the ability to open and edit PSD files (you can. You can add Pixlr Editor to your list of connected Google Drive apps, allowing you to edit images from your Google Drive folder and save them to your Drive without ever leaving your browser. Adobe Photoshop Elements 1.
Compatible with: Windows XP (SP3) and later, Mac OS X v. Number 1. 1 on our list (we know, we know..) is.. Photoshop Elements 1.
Adobe's cut- down version of 'full strength' Photoshop, and it's definitely the best yet. Traditionally, Elements was very much the poor cousin of its more expensive relatives, but over the past few years Adobe has been quietly and steadily adding to its feature set to the point where it's now a very powerful editing tool in its own right. Although the interface (especially browsing) is different enough to be confusing for someone used to Photoshop CS6, Elements 1. There are still limitations, but far fewer than there were in the past.
For a breakdown of the differences between Elements and Photoshop CS6, this page on Adobe's help forums is pretty comprehensive. Further Reading. Tim Moynihan is a freelance technology writer based in New York. After two years as Home Page and Features Editor at CNET, Tim joined PC world in 2.
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