They also learn to treasure their own ethnic and sexual identities and those of other people. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: Play gives children a chance to develop healthy bodies and muscle control. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Children come to learn, understand, and achieve intellectual success while playing and interacting with objects in their environment. CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT: Play gives children opportunities to exercise and express original thought.
Learn about exercises to lose weight and get fit and healthy plus information on weight training bodybuilding and exercises for persons in a wheelchair. Exercise Definition Exercise is physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive for the purpose of conditioning any part of the body. Pediatric Core Exercise Program These 'powerhouse' moves can be fun for children in sessions or at home. Background and Purpose. This case report describes a fitness program for children with disabilities and provides preliminary information about the safety and. Volume 6, Issue 3, May 2011: Recreational Therapy, Exercise, & Leisure Activities for Individuals with Disabilities.
This article outlines benefits of and recommendations for physical activity and exercise for people with disabilities. Development of the Exercise Rehabilitation Algorithm for the Children with Disabilities: With focus on the children with encephalopathy, intellectual disabilities and. Resistance Training for Persons With Neuromuscular Disabilities. Individuals With Cerebral Palsy (CP) Resistance training program. Few definitive resistance training.
Resistance Training Recommendations for Individuals With Neuromuscular Disabilities. In 2. 00. 8, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2. Specific to adults with disabilities, these guidelines recommended two or more days per week of moderate- to high- intensity resistance training with accommodations to match one’s functional capabilities. This general recommendation was clarified by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) position stand to specify the intensity and type of resistance training needed to improve health and reduce disease risk (Garber et al., 2. Important for persons with disabilities, especially those with neuromuscular involvement, the resistance training prescription recommended in the Physical Activity Guidelines and the ACSM position stand has been shown to result in meaningful health outcomes including improved blood pressure, cardiovascular function, completion of daily activities, body composition, glucose uptake, and, perhaps most important to the target audience, motor function (Garber et al., 2. National Center on Physical Activity and Disability, 2.
Stone, Stone, & Sands, 2. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2. The following section of this article describes the components of the general resistance training prescription appropriate for persons with disabilities outlined in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans and ACSM position stand. General Resistance Training Prescriptionand Associated Benefits. Resistance training includes any type of resistance to muscular contraction and includes activity incorporating body- resistance exercise, circuit training, free weights, plyometrics, resistance bands, or weight machines (Stone et al., 2.
A resistance training prescription is typically called a training program and is designed to achieve specific outcomes in muscular strength, power, endurance, or some combination of the three called muscular fitness. In general, a resistance training prescription or program includes manipulation of key training variables including exercise choice, exercise frequency, exercise intensity, exercise order, number of repetitions, number of sets, and rest periods between sets (Kraemer & Fleck, 2. These prescription or program components are manipulated to target specific muscular fitness adaptations and are described in detail in Table 1.
The general resistance training prescription intended to maximize health and reduce disease risk in healthy adults, including those with disabilities, is reported in Table 2. Although this resistance program is effective for persons with disabilities, there are unique program modifications that are needed for persons with certain neuromuscular limitations. Table 1. Components of a Resistance Training Program. Component. Description.
Exercise choice. Exercise choices indicate the decision to select free weights over machine weights or multiple- joint exercises over single- joint exercises. These decisions are made to provide the best exercise option for an individual’s personal goals within the confines of functional limitations. Exercise frequency. Frequency reflects the number of days per week that resistance training is recommended. Exercise intensity. Exercise intensity is perhaps the most poorly prescribed component of a resistance training program.
Intensity can be prescribed as a percentage of the maximum lift (% of 1- RM) or can be prescribed as the number of repetitions to failure (repetition maximum or RM). Exercise order. Exercise order emphasizes the sequence of training and dictates which exercises should be completed first: large muscle groups prior to small muscle groups, multi- joint exercises prior to single- joint, or priority exercises before secondary exercises. Exercise order can also be used to rest muscle groups by alternating exercises from upper to lower body or alternating exercises after each set. Number of repetitions. Exercise repetitions (reps) are influenced by exercise intensity. The lower the intensity, the greater number of reps that can be completed. In general, 1 to 6 repetitions are prescribed to improve muscular power and strength, whereas greater than 1.
Number of sets. The number of sets will dictate strength and functional benefits. Although multiple sets of exercise are advantageous for trained persons wanting to improve muscular fitness, there are times when single set recommendations are used to target specific functional goals for persons with a variety of functional abilities. Rest periods between sets. Rest periods reflect the amount of time needed between sets for one’s body to restore sufficient energy levels. One minute or less is needed between sets for endurance training, whereas 3 to 5 minutes between sets are needed for recovery during strength and power training.
Note. These descriptions are based on the work of Baechle, Earle, & Wathen, 2. Kraemer & Fleck, 2. It is important to recognize that the general prescription reported in Table 2 is appropriate for varying types of neuromuscular disabilities including multiple sclerosis, post- polio syndrome, and Parkinson’s disease. Unfortunately, voluntary motor limitations in other neuromuscular conditions dictate that modifications be made for specific populations. For example, ataxia, muscle weakness, paralysis, and spasticity require changes to exercise choice, exercise intensity, and exercise order to meet the motor capabilities of persons with cerebral palsy, stroke, and spinal cord injury. Progressive muscle loss associated with muscular dystrophy also dictates that exercise intensity be adjusted to reduce risk of functional declines in this population. Despite limited research to establish recommendations for persons with traumatic brain injury, there is empirical support for resistance training modifications needed to improve motor function in persons with cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury, and stroke.
Therefore, the following section addresses appropriate program modifications of the general resistance prescription and associated disability- specific benefits for these populations. The audience is also reminded that resistance training is only one component of an overall exercise prescription that should include aerobic and flexibility training as well. Table 2. General Resistance Training Prescription for Persons With Disabilities. Prescription Component.
Reccomendation. Exercise choice. Choice of free weights (e.
Exercise frequency. Exercise intensity. RM or 6. 0 to 8. 0% of 1- RMExercise order. Larger muscle group exercises should be completed prior to small muscle group exercises. Multi- joint exercises should be completed prior to single- joint exercises. Number of repetitions. Number of sets. 2 to 4 sets although 1 set is sufficient for novice exercisers.
Rest periods between sets. Note. This prescription is the general resistance training recommendation to improve health and reduce disease risk reported in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans and ACSM position stand. Resistance Training for Persons With Neuromuscular Disabilities.
Individuals With Cerebral Palsy (CP)Resistance training program. Few definitive resistance training prescriptions or programs have been proposed for persons with CP for two reasons. One, CP includes a group of disorders with varying manifestations and levels of functional ability, making one general recommendation difficult (Damiano, Alter, & Chambers, 2. Laskin, 2. 00. 9). Additionally, the majority of research studies on research training outcomes have been conducted on children and adolescents with CP rather than adults, making a general adult recommendation speculative (Rimmer, 2. Regardless, a general resistance training prescription is appropriate for persons with CP with two distinct modifications.
One, exercise choice needs to be determined based on function. Despite the desire to use free weights, individuals with CP may have difficulty with multi- joint open chain exercises. Free weight exercises typically require dynamic or static balance during execution and persons with CP, depending on level and intensity of involvement, may not have the balance required for such movements. Therefore, single- joint open chain exercises are a prudent starting point for persons with CP (Verschuren et al., 2. Additionally, exercise intensity needs to be guided by functional capability rather than the general 8–1. RM recommendation.
Persons with CP may demonstrate reduced exercise efficiency and higher submaximal work rates than the general population; therefore, exercise intensity should be prescribed “as tolerated” or to fatigue (Damiano, Arnold, Steele, & Delp, 2. Laskin, 2. 00. 9). Whereas the general ACSM recommendation calls for a minimum intensity of 8–1.
RM or 6. 0 to 8. 0% of 1- RM, persons with CP may have to progress to this intensity from a much lower starting point. Spasticity during exercise may also influence the prescription in this population. The summary of these prescription modifications are reported in Table 3. Resistance training benefits. In addition to the general benefits of resistance training (e. CP (Allen, Dodd, Taylor, Mc.
Burney, & Larkin, 2. Mc. Burney, Taylor, Dodd, & Graham, 2. Collectively, these outcomes are important for independence and completion of activities of daily living. Although research on strength training outcomes is still emerging, positive benefits to resistance prescription is important because this mode of exercise was previously contraindicated for persons with CP (Damiano et al., 2. Table 3. Unique Program Considerations for Neuromuscular Populations. Population. Unique Prescription Component.
Rationale for Distinction. Cerebral Palsy. Excercise Choice.
Weight machines, rather than free weights, may be necessary for individuals whose spasticity, athetosis, or ataxia interfere with dynamic or static balance. Excercise Intensity.